Our initiative set out to create a three-dimensional (3D) virtual learning tool that allows instructors and students to view and interact with models in a virtual simulated platform. The process involved: 1) Streamlining the 3D model creation procedure 2) Building a model viewer for parts familiarization and task training 3) Creating an efficient production workflow for getting content into the custom model viewer.
Almost all Saskatchewan highways have long stretches of rural roads through flat agricultural land with little roadside development and very few intersections. Traffic volumes are often relatively low on these rural highway sections and the travel speeds on these highways are normally high. However these rural highways often have short sections passing through small urban communities. These highway sections in small urban communities often have higher traffic volumes than the adjacent rural highway sections. These highway sections in small urban communities may have to accommodate through traffic as well as provide access to local businesses and residences. At some of these locations, due to economic and population growth, transportation needs have evolved beyond what these highway sections and communities were originally designed for. Highways at some of these locations may also function as local community main streets, which mean that these highway sections can be characterized by frequent intersections, property accesses, pedestrians and cyclists, school zones, and roadside parking. As a consequence unique safety concerns are identified. For example vehicles accustomed to the high travelling speed outside the towns tend to drive fast and pose risks to local traffic, pedestrians, and cyclists in towns. Accommodation of the local traffic and vulnerable road users while maintaining appropriate mobility is very important in these situations. The Saskatchewan Ministry of Highways and Infrastructure has conducted safety studies for highway sections near and within towns’ urban limits to proactively identify safety issues for improvement. The first phase study was for highways through small towns with population less than 1,000 and the second phase study was for highways through larger towns with population greater than 1,000. The studies used methodologies such as stakeholders (ministry regional traffic engineers, municipal officials, and RCMP officers) surveys and discussions to identify situations/locations with potential safety risks, site visits and assessment, GIS analysis tool in collision data analysis and assessment of roadway geometrics and signings etc. The studies have identified some common opportunities for safety improvements system wide and have also identified some safety concerns at some specific locations in towns. Countermeasures have been recommended such as establishing graduated speed transitions on highway approaches to towns, improving conspicuity of intersections, and enhancing highway sections in town centres as community streets among others for traffic safety improvements.
As towns and cities throughout North America begin to show signs of aging, the number of emerging mature neighbourhoods and communities within municipalities has burgeoned. The rapid growth of these areas has created transportation safety problems of a magnitude and nature that are hitherto unknown to governing bodies. Mature neighbourhoods are defined as those communities developed in the historic past that often consist of older and smaller dwellings built on properties with a sizable lot in quiet streets. As the supply of large properties in towns continues to decrease and the costs of developable land continues to increase, the demand and pressure to rebuild infills in mature neighbourhoods is expected to rise. Developers, or existing owners, are now looking into purchasing or converting existing properties and turning them into larger or multi-purpose residences that may be incompatible with the existing built-form, and which would create different safety issues on transportation. Many municipalities such as the County of Strathcona and the City of Edmonton in Alberta are currently conducting studies to formulate Mature Neighbourhood Overlay (MNO) policies with a view to lessen the threat of loss of character in these redevelopment areas, to protect green spaces, and to balance needs with zoning regulations. While these initiatives to address the land use impacts are necessary and commendable, the same corresponding attention have not been paid to the impact on transportation that are often as challenging, given tight existing conditions and constraints. To be successful, care must be taken to ensure that these infill developments will not create a negative impact, a perceived or real hazard, or an unacceptable increase in traffic on local roads. This paper sets out to explore some of the more critical issues on transportation in mature neighbourhoods. It examines the unique features within these communities such as the blending of future houses with existing buildings; demographics of residents; traffic calming measures and their implementation; curbside management; geometric conditions and constraints; driveway accesses, setbacks, and parking; roadway dieting; conditions created by senior living; high and low end condominiums, etc.; as they relate to transportation and traffic safety. Strategies, policies and guideline solutions are suggested. The importance of public engagement is highlighted. Case studies using Strathcona County as an example are cited. It is recommended that more encompassing studies in the future should be carried out by research bodies to formulate a best practice guideline document.
The Quebec Ministry of Transport, Sustainable Mobility and Transportation Electrification (Ministère des Transports, de la Mobilité durable et de l’électrification des transports, hereinafter MTMDET) is responsible for the winter maintenance of an extensive road network. In Quebec, local roads (107,000 km) are under municipal jurisdiction, while the MTMDET is responsible for all provincial roads and highways (31,000 km). The larger part (66%) of the provincial road network is maintained by private sector companies. The rest is maintained by the MTMDET (20%) and municipalities (14%). Each year, the MTMDET uses over 800,000 tonnes of de-icing agent on its road network in the winter months, which has a considerable negative impact to varying degrees on nearby flora and fauna, water quality, soil quality and infrastructure. Water quality tests conducted in several lakes close to urban areas across the province of Quebec has shown that, in certain locations, chloride concentrations are steadily increasing. And in a few locations, these concentrations have surpassed the chronic toxicity threshold for aquatic life. Considering that sodium chloride’s impact on the environment and on roadway infrastructures is well documented, the responsible use and management of this product is of primordial importance.
The 2nd Concession is a major north-south arterial corridor under the jurisdiction of The Regional Municipality of York (York Region). Located in the Town of East Gwillimbury, Ontario, the corridor crosses a popular conservation area and recreational trail, situated in the watershed of the East Holland River which is managed by the Lake Simcoe Region Conservation Authority (LSRCA). York Region and the Town of East Gwillimbury are undergoing tremendous growth in population and employment. The 2nd Concession Project improves mobility and enhances the environment with sustainable, context sensitive infrastructure in response to growth. The innovative, enhanced public outreach program included early and consistent stakeholder engagement with mandatory and non-mandatory public open house meetings, kitchen table discussions with residents, site visits, a “visioning” workshop and regular newsletters. This established a high degree of trust and resulted in early stakeholder buy-in which accelerated project timelines and saved tax dollars. The early identification of environmental enhancements resulted in a design that improves mobility for all corridor users including pedestrians and cyclists and promotes active transportation.
Civil and Geotechnical Engineering design practice primarily considers general slope stability, with surficial slope stability addressed with less design rigour. Long term surficial slope stability is commonly accomplished with vegetation in the form of grass lined slopes, where detailing of same is accomplished by the slope stability engineer, a vegetation specialist or an erosion control practitioner. When removing in-situ organic material pre-construction, there is common misconception that topsoil replaced post-construction must be equal to, or greater than the depth of the original topsoil. Little, if any attention is given to examining the vegetation establishment capacity of the civil grade. Common practice is to place topsoil on top of civil grade with typically insufficient detailing considering mechanical sloughing or organic leaching. With increased slopes, more compacted subgrades and less compacted topsoil, there comes increased likelihood of surficial slope instability. This paper examines surficial slope instability where design detailing may be a contributing factor to long term surficial slope instability; where instability is found within days, months, years or even decades. Further, this paper expands on the potential contribution of the erosion control industry where commonly delivered ‘Best Management Practices’ may contribute to surficial slope instability. Evidence will be brought to support discussion around less topsoil and greater diligence in design detailing, to cause long-term sustainable root establishment in the civil grade for more robust grass liner protection of engineered infrastructure.
Frost susceptible subgrade soils, when exposed to moisture and freezing condition, cause frost heaving on road surfaces. In cold climates, like Manitoba, many road sections experience surface roughness and pavement deterioration due to seasonal frost heaving and melting. Subgrade soils frost heave remedial measures such as removal and replacement, embankment construction using non-frost susceptible materials, soil stabilization or thick pavement structures are generally very costly and/or impractical. Moreover, available guidelines or study results for characterizing soils as frost susceptible and classifying into different severity levels vary widely. Remedial measures or management of frost heave issues also vary among highway agencies. All these variations or factors hinder the selection of an appropriate approach to deal with this issue. In Manitoba, in the past, a subgrade soil was characterized as frost susceptible if it met several characteristics. If a soil was characterized as frost susceptible, the calculated structural number (SN) was increased by 25%. The historical basis for such characterization and a fixed adjustment is unknown. Manitoba has now adopted the “value for money analysis approach” for all design, construction and operational practices. This led to a review of the appropriateness of these method/practice and revise to meet Manitoba’s current needs. Manitoba has completed major changes to frost susceptibility characterization/classification and pavement structure design/analysis for frost susceptible subgrade soils. This led to a more cost-effective and reasonable pavement structure design and management. This paper presents the comparison of various frost susceptibility characterization and classification, Manitoba’s past practice and recent changes, and the impacts of these changes. This paper and presentation may be an educational opportunity for interested individuals or agencies.
Reliable data provides the foundation upon which transportation professionals base their work. Without reliable data, they are unable to develop solid conclusions and recommendations for a myriad of projects and applications. One of the main forms of data that transportation professionals rely upon in long-range planning projects, more specifically Transportation Master Plans, is origin-destination (O-D) survey data. This data typically identifies where people are traveling, why and how often and helps determine what transportation system changes and improvements will be required to accommodate transportation needs in the future. Oxford County is located in Southwestern Ontario. It covers 2,040 square kilometres (788 square miles) with a 2016 census population of 110,862 persons. The County has five (5) rural municipalities and three (3) urban municipalities and is responsible for the management and maintenance of 614 kilometres of road. In 2016, Oxford County initiated an update to their Transportation Master Plan (TMP). An O-D survey was carried out as part of this update. Oxford County is progressive from the perspectives of sustainability and investment in new and emerging technologies. Instead of utilizing traditional survey methodologies (direct interview, mail out/mail back) to collect the O-D data, the decision was made to use Media Access Control (MAC) address capture technology to record the survey data since use of this technology is in line with the County’s initiatives. The data was collected using Miovision Scout data collection cameras with connected adapters. The adapters captured MAC addresses from Wi-Fi enabled devices within a 30 metre (+/-) radius of each unit. The Scout camera units collect traffic count data concurrent to the MAC address data capture. Use of this technology permitted more data to be collected over a longer period of time at a lower cost. Furthermore, the MAC technology required significantly fewer human resources and allowed data to be collected in a passive manner that did not impact traffic operations or rely on people’s willingness to participate in a survey. With fewer human resources needed within the road allowance, there are also safety benefits to using this technology.
The City of Red Deer wishes to develop a multimodal future. The objective is for all residents – be they on foot, bicycle, in transit or in private vehicle - feel comfortable and safe to travel by their chosen mode. The aim is to provide the space, the design and budget for all modes to travel but without unduly delaying motor vehicles. This is a big task. To shift the space allocations in the public realm to create this future requires deliberate action for the users on the street. To better target the action, an analysis tool was devised. As an example of the utility of an index, the Canadian Forest Service devised the Fire Weather Index (FWI) to establish a common understanding across forest types and topography of relative ‘Fire Weather’. Likewise, it is well understood how motor vehicle Level of Service (LOS) is used and applied to city streets. Similarly, a new measuring tool envisaged providing an objective ‘user view’ to gather what is present which helps or hinders the user from achieving their objective – travel along a corridor or through an intersection – in a consistent manner. It was determined that an easy and transparent spreadsheet measuring quantitative elements by mode and by segment is likely to have the greatest utility, support across departments and potentially be useful in engaging with the public to demonstrate decision choices. As developed, the Multimodal Transportation Index (MTI) measures both the a) current status of a transportation corridor and b) the proposed addition of component parts (elements) users of each mode of transportation require for safety, comfort, quality and connection. It can be used before and after the design process as well as before and after the construction phases. The presence of the elements contributes to a score of A-F, much like conventional LOS, which will encourage the safe and comfortable use of each space to connect to other parts of the city on quality infrastructure. Users of each mode are thereby encouraged to travel these routes with a better experience which translates to higher mode uptake and continued use of the investment. The critical elements form a basis for the planning and design for each space to provide high quality service to city residents and visitors. The elements are a list including the presence of dual para-ramps, boulevard setbacks from back of curb to vehicle travel, presence of street trees, wayfinding, bicycle facility type and appropriate application to road design speed, transit shelters and their amenities, transit travel time and frequency (head way) and pavement quality, among many others. It is anticipated that this will lead to achieving many of the co-benefits and policy goals listed in the City of Red Deer’s Environmental Masterplan, and the Mobility Playbook; and advances the objectives of the Multimodal Transportation Plan and the Neighbourhood Planning and Design Standards, which the City of Red Deer has set. The MTI is a calculated and measured approach towards using the right of way to provide safe travel options, to a standard (A-F) which is acceptable by council and as a benchmarking tool measuring change over time. A series of examples of street views and scores will be presented and well as proposed designs and the resulting MTI score change.
A Canadian city was planning a set of future transit service modifications, including introduction of new bus routes. These would be accommodated at a future neighbourhood bus terminal, with an adjacent park and ride lot. The site was chosen in part because high volumes of traffic currently pass by the location, providing a potential travel market for the new services. West of the site, the adjacent road climbs a hill with grades over 11%. The need for a new bus terminal access near the base of the steep hill has potential operational and safety problems during winter, including downhill stopping and uphill climbing from the bus terminal. These challenges required exploration of several design options, including traffic control, modified intersection configurations, and revised alignments and profiles for the collector road. These options were evaluated with City stakeholder input, considering operational, safety, complete streets and travel time objectives. The final functional design was a combination of a modified profile for the collector road, with a traffic signal introduced at the new access point. This paper describes the design objectives, existing conditions, resulting challenges, options developed, and the considerations that led to selection of the functional design for the bus terminal site access.
Impacts to traffic and the ongoing debate around grade separations are some of the most highly debated issues along planned LRT corridors. Edmonton’s 2017 municipal election brought many related issues to the fore, including: increased demands for the technical rationale behind decisions; a need for a more defined toolkit for decision-making regarding intersection performance; and greater clarity around City vision and project trade-offs. As a result, the City of Edmonton’s LRT Delivery group, in conjunction with other key City personnel and a study of industry best practices, developed a process and accompanying evaluation criteria to both clarify its own processes and assist City Council in making these critical decisions. The framework developed consists of a three phased approach that aims to balance sustainable urban integration principles with impacts to network operations. This framework is being used to guide decisions on both new LRT alignments as well as expansions to the existing network and has recently assisted City Council in making critical decisions along the Valley Line West and Metro Line corridors.
Portions of Calgary’s light rail system (the C-Train) operate at grade, parallel to roadways. The public has expressed concern that an upcoming expansion to the rail network will negatively impact vehicle travel times at intersections where the C-Train track and roads intersect. This study was created to quantify the effects of existing C-Train/vehicle conflicts on vehicle travel time. It utilized C-Train arrival and departure times, GPS locations of a pace car, and automated Bluetooth detectors to characterize vehicle travel times through a major intersection during peak volume hours. The combined results suggest that delays caused by conflicts with the C-Train are common, and the resulting delays are similar in duration to the delay caused by regular signal cycles.
This paper summarizes the investigation into coordinating traffic signal times along the Dunsmuir Street corridor in downtown Vancouver (Canada) for the benefit of cyclists. The objective of this paper is to show how to reduce the total waiting time for cyclists by adjusting the optimization speed of traffic lights. Major sources of data include historical traffic volume data provided by the City of Vancouver, manual collection of pedestrian counts and manual collection of bicycle counts. Bike speed data along Dunsmuir Street was recorded using a microcontroller to determine average speeds along various slopes in the corridor and variation amongst users. Space time plots were used to graphically determine signal offsets that would improve bicycle progression along the corridor, based on measured bicycle speed, while mitigating impact on motor vehicles. The sum of all the bandwidth gains and losses from all streets are added to calculate the change in waiting time. Data was also used in modelling the current day transportation impact along Dunsmuir Street to motorized vehicles. The paper shows that coordinating traffic signal for bicycles can be achieved with no significant impact on delay time and level of service to vehicles. The average number of stops a cyclist encounter is reduced, as well as a reduction in the wait time at a red lights.
Various Light Rail Transit (LRT) projects are currently being constructed or planned in several jurisdictions across Canada. With many projects now in the planning stages, agencies are defining how LRT operations are governed, modelled, and evaluated. Different jurisdictions, agencies, and consultants tackle operations differently which can affect the final outputs from a technical perspective. Typically, each LRT line varies in design and operation— from street running with basic Transit Signal Priority to lines with gated operation—requiring modeling unique situations. There are innovations in modelling processes resulting in better outcomes in the planning stage by garnering more confidence in outputs such as the LRT and traffic operational models. The significance of improving outputs reliability, such as LRT run time, traffic Measures of Effectiveness (MOEs) including those for active modes, is that they set the expectation for opening day operations. Depending on the project’s funding and procurement method, the outputs can become part of Project Agreements (PAs) which govern penalties and relief events for operations during the concession period. Jurisdictions, agencies, and practitioners may develop guidelines, tools, and processes to control the quality of traffic forecasts and micro-simulation models. This would help achieve consistency between different models, such as LRT models and traffic models. The Valley Line West is a proposed extension of the Valley Line LRT project currently under construction in Edmonton. The Valley Line West is planned to be a low floor urban integrated LRT concept with many in-street running segments. The planning process involves modelling the interactions between the LRT, vehicular traffic and pedestrians to achieve a balanced approach between all modes. An extensive modelling exercise is currently underway and involves the integration of the following models: Edmonton Region Travel Model (RTM) – An EMME based macroscopic model for travel demand forecasting; City of Edmonton Dynamic Traffic Assignment (DTA) Model – A Dynameq based mesoscopic sub area model for network-wide traffic diversion impact analysis; Valley West LRT VISSIM Model – A microsimulation traffic model for detailed operational analysis; OpenTrack Model – An LRT operational modelling tool. The modelling team has developed an integrated and iterative approach whereby the various models feed into each other. This paper highlights and details of modelling approach undertaken towards meeting the goals of the project. This paper focuses on processes rather than the results. This will include an innovative in-house developed program that integrates VISSIM and OpenTrack to achieve better results for both traffic and LRT modelling.
Climate change has the potential to transcend our way of life, and a key element of that is how we get around. Increasingly severe weather events such as snowstorms, hurricanes, or flash floods, or slower processes such as rising water levels, may leave our highways underwater, our transportation hubs isolated, and our rail lines blocked. Under these conditions, the ability of the overall transportation network to continue to allow emergency responders to act and people to evacuate will be placed under a severe strain. At this point, a transportation network unable to cope with the conditions may result in mobility chaos at best and disaster at worst, making it critical to incorporate resilience testing into future network planning. The Greater Golden Horseshoe Transportation Plan, currently under development by the Ontario Ministry of Transportation (MTO), will test network and service elements in the region under pressure to ensure proofing of transportation infrastructure in Southern Ontario against future conditions. One way in which this could be tested is by assessing the resilience of the existing network to major and recurring events using long range modelling and macroscopic forecasting tools. Using such tools we can stress-test the busiest and most critical network elements and mimic the impact of inclement weather events, or emergency situations, such as the closure of a major rail terminal or highway corridor, or the blockage of interchanges along the busiest freeways, and evaluate for each scenario how resilient the overall network is in reacting to and accommodating demand. A different application of a similar approach could be considered when planning for future road and rail infrastructure in an attempt to act pre-emptively and offset the impact of climate change. Certain locations, such as floodplains, areas susceptible to blowing snow, and urban heat islands, inherently place more stress on infrastructure, and pose higher risks to people and goods travelling through them. Using macroscopic forecasting models and GIS tools we can identify the demand that a potential corridor would generate and compare the extent of infrastructure or the demand in terms of people, vehicles, and value of goods that would use the risk-prone corridors. This approach could help us identify “safer” routes, corridors and infrastructure elements in order to build resilient transportation networks.
Les panneaux d’affichage dynamique de la vitesse sont utilisés dans plusieurs provinces et territoires du Canada. Ils permettent aux conducteurs de voir leur vitesse, habituellement affichée à c?té du panneau indiquant la limite de vitesse permise. Ces dispositifs sont destinés à faire prendre conscience aux conducteurs des limites de vitesse en affichant en temps réel la vitesse à laquelle ils conduisent leur véhicule. On a pu constater qu’ils sont efficaces peu de temps après leur installation. Les Lignes directrices pour l’utilisation des panneaux d’affichage de la vitesse ont été mises au point afin de définir les meilleures pratiques et de fournir des recommandations pour la conception et l’utilisation de panneaux d’affichage de la vitesse dans le contexte canadien pour diverses situations. Ces Lignes directrices permettent et favorisent l’uniformité dans l’utilisation des dispositifs dans tout le Canada; elles ont été rédigées dans le but de servir de document de référence détaillé complémentaire à utiliser conjointement avec le Manuel canadien de la signalisation routière (MCSR).
Les murs de soutènement de sol stabilisé mécaniquement (MSSM) sont depuis longtemps utilisés comme murs de soutènement, mais il n’est pas toujours évident de déterminer qui est l’ultime responsable de la conception, de l’assurance de la qualité, de la gestion des actifs et de la réparation des murs, ainsi que de la surveillance en service des murs déjà construits, en particulier en cas de problèmes importants relativement à la construction ou la tenue en service. Le présent guide offre aux ma?tres d’ouvrages, ingénieurs, fournisseurs et entrepreneurs des MSSM des lignes directrices pratiques en matière de sélection, de conception, de construction et d’inspection de ces ouvrages, surtout dans le cadre de projets de travaux publics. Le guide a été élaboré sur la base de l’examen de la littérature existante, complétée par de l’information transmise par divers intervenants dans ce domaine. Il ne cherche pas à reproduire les très nombreuses lignes directrices de conception déjà publiées, ni l’information connexe. Il vise plut?t à mettre en évidence les diverses facettes de l’état actuel de la pratique au Canada et à proposer des modifications à la pratique actuelle afin de corriger certaines lacunes.
This manual has been developed to assist bridge owners by establishing inspection procedures and evaluation practices that meet the National Bridge Inspection Standards (NBIS). The manual has been divided into eight sections, with each section representing a distinct phase of an overall bridge inspection and evaluation program. This edition updates Sections 3: Bridge Management Systems; 4: Inspection; 6: Load Rating; and 7: Fatigue Evaluation of Steel Bridges.
Le Code de bonne pratique pour les revêtements modulaires en pierre naturelle constitue un ouvrage de référence pour la sélection des matériaux (tant des éléments en pierre naturelle, que des matériaux de jointoiement et de couche de pose), la conception et le dimensionnement de projets, la mise en oeuvre et l’entretien des voiries en pierre naturelle. La fabrication d’un élément en pierre naturelle trouvant tout d’abord son origine dans des processus qui datent parfois de plusieurs centaines de millions d’années, une introduction du document consacrée à la géologie trouve tout son sens, d’autant plus que l’aspect et les caractéristiques de la pierre y sont fortement liés. Ce document tient compte de l’évolution des techniques de pose et de mise en oeuvre que l’on a pu observer ces dernières décennies suite à la mise sur le marché de matériaux moins traditionnels. Le code de bonne pratique se veut un document technique de base pour toute personne impliquée dans un projet d’aménagement en pierre naturelle. Il s’adresse aux concepteurs, architectes, entrepreneurs, gestionnaires publics ou privés, ou fournisseurs de matériaux.